Although seizure data remains the most effective way to monitor trafficking, measuring intentionally hidden practices using only those practices that are discovered – and subsequently reported on – is inherently problematic. To accurately interpret the various insights that seizure data provides, it is necessary to be aware of possible biases within the data, and how they may have affected our results.
Throughout Flying Under the Radar, we have attempted to be as candid as possible about the limitations of data to not only identify areas for improvement, but also assess how each issue may have affected our analyses. Note that the following list is not meant to be exhaustive.
1. No baseline of wildlife seizures in the air transport sector.
During our research for this report, we found little transport-specific information on trafficking, particularly in relation to wildlife crime. We did not find any other reports on wildlife trafficking through the lens of one specific transport sector. This finding was reflected in the lack of transport method-specific information in the majority of the wildlife seizure databases that we are aware of or have access to. Similarly, although there have been quite a few reports on ivory and rhino horn trafficking, we found little information on past reptile and bird seizure analyses. As a result, we were unable to reliably compare our findings to past analyses.
2. Successful trafficking instances are not captured in seizure data, and therefore are not included.
Because it is impossible to measure successful smuggling activity – or trafficking instances that are never stopped – seizure data inevitably misses some of the most effective smuggling strategies. For instance:
a. Because enforcement resources tend to be greater at large airports, it is possible that smaller airports are underrepresented in the Database.
b. Domestic trafficking instances may be underrepresented as well, since domestic flights tend to move through smaller airports.
c. Traffickers with sufficient funds may be choosing private planes over public flights.
The inevitable exclusion of successful trafficking instances from seizure data has a particularly large impact on determining enforcement success rates (the Country Enforcement Index, see Figure 6 and Appendix IV). Although the Index can only be based on trafficking that has been stopped, a true enforcement success rate would measure those shipments that successfully reach their destination as well.
3. Human error.
4. Variability in enforcement reporting processes.
Countries whose enforcement agencies have a well-established wildlife seizure reporting system in place will be more likely to have a comprehensive database including wildlife seizure data. In particular, countries that have established a public seizure reporting protocol and platform (e.g. Hong Kong Customs and Excise Department’s press release archive) may be overrepresented in the Database. By contrast, countries lacking reporting systems and seizure press release platforms may be underrepresented in our data.
5. Variability in local media seizure reporting.
Local media reporting of wildlife seizures varies substantially from country to country. The likelihood that wildlife seizures will make it into local news stories appears to depend on a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, local awareness of and interest in wildlife trafficking, freedom of the press, and quality of seizure reporting.
6. Variability in CITES reporting.
While some countries consistently provide CITES with comprehensive seizure information, many report sporadically or not at all. Even within reports that make it to CITES, the detail and accuracy of the contained seizure data can vary considerably from country to country. As a result, countries with a better history of CITES reporting may be overrepresented in the C4ADS Air Seizure Database, while countries without CITES reports may be underrepresented.
7. Inaccurate or contradictory reporting.
Seizure information in the media and even in confidential government reporting is often fraught with inaccuracies, particularly right after the seizure takes place. If these mistakes were never rectified, then those inaccurate reports may be included in our data. Contradictory seizure reports can both add confusion to our analyses, as well as lead to the potential duplication of seizures within our Database. Whenever possible, we attempted to clarify any apparent inconsistencies in the seizure information that we discovered by looking for additional, official sources. Still, the potential for inaccurate reporting is a constant and, to some extent, inevitable problem for seizure data.
8. Aggregated seizure reporting.Some countries consistently release information on aggregated wildlife seizures, but do not report on individual seizures. While refraining from publishing detailed information on certain seizures may have a worthwhile purpose – confidentiality or security concerns – not publishing any seizure-specific information prevents accurate analysis of shifting trafficking trends. We did not include any aggregated seizure information (e.g. “Between 2013 and 2015, 100 ivory seizures were made at X Airport”) to prevent double-counting seizures, and because aggregate seizure numbers tell us comparatively little about wildlife trafficking trends, routes, or modus operandi.
Some countries consistently release information on aggregated wildlife seizures, but do not report on individual seizures. While refraining from publishing detailed information on certain seizures may have a worthwhile purpose – confidentiality or security concerns – not publishing any seizure-specific information prevents accurate analysis of shifting trafficking trends. We did not include any aggregated seizure information (e.g. “Between 2013 and 2015, 100 ivory seizures were made at X Airport”) to prevent double-counting seizures, and because aggregate seizure numbers tell us comparatively little about wildlife trafficking trends, routes, or modus operandi.
9. Non-digital reporting.
In jurisdictions where non-digital reporting remains a prominent source of news, seizure information may only make it into newspapers, and never on to the internet, where articles become more easily discoverable.
10. Seizure size biases.
Larger seizures are more likely to be considered newsworthy by local media, and are therefore more likely to reach the open source. Reports on larger seizures are also more likely to include specific details about the seizure, including route information and obfuscation methods. As a result, our data tend to be more inclusive of large-scale and medium-scale seizures than small-scale seizures. This bias could impact the average weights of seizures within each category of the Database. Since we are more likely to have route and other information associated with larger seizures as well, our data could be missing information on common routes and trafficking methods associated with small-scale wildlife trafficking.
11. Language biases.
While a multi-lingual team of analysts worked together to compile the seizure information within our Database, we were generally not able to search for seizures in less commonly used languages such as Bengali or Laotian. Because of this, seizure reports in less common languages may not be included in our Database, even if the reports are in the open source.
Similarly, because our team is most proficient in English, news stories written in English were more likely to be discovered and included in the Database. However, many countries publish seizure information in English regardless of their native language.
12. Level of awareness and public interest.
Customs and enforcement agencies are far more likely to make wildlife seizures if they are aware of the problem in the first place. Government agencies are more likely to report on wildlife seizures if their citizens are aware of and express interest in the issue. For instance, in Kenya, where ivory trafficking is a well-known problem, many ivory seizures are publicly reported on by local media organizations.
Enforcement & Screening
13. Better enforcement leads to more seizures.
Effective enforcement strategies lead to higher seizure numbers, which may incorrectly create the appearance of a large trafficking problem. If a country couples good enforcement with robust reporting, this problem is magnified. Likewise, ineffective enforcement strategies may suggest that a country has less of a trafficking problem than it actually does, particularly when paired with poor reporting. Since successful smuggling statistics are unknowable, it is difficult to tell if good enforcement or large volumes of trafficking are behind high seizure numbers.
As discussed elsewhere, this problem can be rectified to some extent by compiling the route information associated with seizures. Route information allows for the identification of airports that consistently make fewer seizures but experience high levels of trafficking. This solution does not work as well, however, as an indicator for enforcement success in destination airports. Unlike trafficking in origin and transit airports, if an illicit commodity successfully passes by enforcement in a destination airport, no other enforcement agencies in the air transport sector will be able to catch their mistake.
14. Customs and enforcement priorities.
Enforcement agencies generally do not have the resources to prioritize every type of trafficking that moves by air. Enforcement must therefore prioritize. In some airports, trafficked wildlife is a top priority, but in many others, other types of trafficking – arms, narcotics, etc. – far outrank wildlife. For example, a survey of customs officials by WCO in 2014 found that wildlife consistently ranked last in terms of importance in every region except for two – East and Southern Africa and Asia Pacific. Enforcement agencies with particularly limited resources may not have the ability to provide training or guidance on wildlife trafficking at all. As a result, these jurisdictions are likely underrepresented in our analysis.
15. Limited screening of passengers and shipments in transit.
Customs and enforcement officials in most airports are not able to screen passengers or shipments that are already in transit. Seizures are therefore much more likely to take place at the origin or destination point of trafficking instances. The resulting under emphasis on transit airports in our data has likely skewed our results in the Country Enforcement Index. Note that the inclusion of wildlife categories that do not share the same supply chains as ivory and rhino horn has likely mitigated this effect to an extent.
16. Seizures made for undisclosed reasons.
Seizure reports occasionally do not include the reason for the seizure, although in ivory and rhino horn trafficking instances, the reason for the seizure is often clear. But live animal seizures can occur because the animals are of a protected or CITES-listed species, or the animals may be legal to transport, but were discovered in inhumane conditions. In the latter case, the seizure may not be indicative of trafficking activity, and therefore may not be relevant to wildlife seizure analyses, but without further information that distinction cannot be made.
17. No clear post-seizure procedure.
In some jurisdictions, customs and enforcement agencies have not developed clear post-seizure procedures to direct enforcement officials after the discovery of illegal wildlife. In other regions, enforcement does not have the resources to seize and store valuable illicit products or to care for live animals. When this occurs, officials may refrain from seizing illegal wildlife or wildlife products entirely, or they may impose a fine, but allow the trafficker to continue with their contraband.
18. Freedom of the press.
In certain countries, reporting on environmental issues is discouraged. In extreme cases, environmental journalists have been killed for their articles. This is, of course, especially true in countries where no free press exists. Public seizure reporting in many of these jurisdictions is, understandably, limited. Any seizures made in these areas are therefore unlikely to make it into the C4ADS Air Seizure Database.
19. Corruption levels.
Corruption plays a large role in determining whether seizures will be made, or whether illegal products will be allowed to pass for the price of a bribe. Although the World Bank produces numeric estimates of corruption at the country level, we found corruption levels to vary from port to port within certain countries, and so decided against quantitatively incorporating corruption in our analysis. We are, however, considering ways to incorporate corruption in future reports.
20. Perception of seizures.
Some governments proudly publicize wildlife seizures as evidence of enforcement success at their airports, while others choose to suppress news of seizures, thinking of them instead as evidence of a weakness. This seems to be particularly true with large-scale ivory seizures. The C4ADS Air Seizure Database will naturally have more seizures from countries with a positive perception of seizures than from countries with neutral or negative perceptions.
Biases & Vulnerabilities within Routes Data
21. Overrepresentation of capitals in the routes maps.
Route information is most often reported at the country level (e.g. “The rhino horn consignment transited through Kenya and Malaysia before arrival in Shanghai”). To include country-level routes data in our analysis, we substituted capital cities when only country-level information was provided. As a result, our routes maps may overemphasize capital cities.
22. False origins and destinations.
Smuggled wildlife and wildlife products are often moved across national borders by land or sea prior to entering the air transport sector. For instance, wild birds from Peru may be driven across the border to Bolivia before being carried onto a plane at El Alto Airport. Similarly, ivory shipments are sometimes flown into Vietnam before being driven across the border into China. When this occurs, the origins and destinations recorded in our air routes data do not accurately reflect the true source and destination of the trafficking instance in question.
23. Incomplete route details.
Open source reporting on seizures frequently neglects to include route information, preventing the inclusion of a number of our identified seizures in the routes maps.
In addition, seizure reports will often state the route of a seizure, but will not explain which airports acted as origin, transit, or destination. For example, a media report might read, “Two Taiwanese citizens were intercepted in Taoyuan Airport while boarding a flight to Vietnam,” but will not specify whether Vietnam was intended to be a transit or destination point. In most of these cases, further investigation can lead to a possible answer, but there is still a degree of guesswork involved in categorizing the airport in question.
The following R packages were used in this project:
- ggplot2 -- H. Wickham. ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Springer-Verlag New York, 2009
- plyr -- Hadley Wickham (2011). The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 40(1), 1-29. URL http://www.jstatsoft.org/v40/i01/
- dplyr -- Hadley Wickham and Romain Francois (2016). dplyr: A Grammar of Data Manipulation. R package version 0.5.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=dplyr
- reshape2 -- Hadley Wickham (2007). Reshaping Data with the reshape Package. Journal of Statistical Software, 21(12), 1-20. URL http://www.jstatsoft.org/v21/i12/
- extrafont -- Winston Chang, (2014). extrafont: Tools for using fonts. R package version 0.17. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=extrafont
- RColorBrewer -- Erich Neuwirth (2014). RColorBrewer: ColorBrewer Palettes. R package version 1.1-2. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=RColorBrewer
- ggalt -- Bob Rudis (2016). ggalt: Extra Coordinate Systems, Geoms and Statistical Transformations for 'ggplot2'. R package version 0.1.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ggalt
- maps -- Original S code by Richard A. Becker, Allan R. Wilks. R version by Ray Brownrigg. Enhancements by Thomas P Minka and Alex Deckmyn. (2016). maps: Draw Geographical Maps. R package version 3.1.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=maps
- geosphere -- Robert J. Hijmans (2016). geosphere: Spherical Trigonometry. R package version 1.5-5. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=geosphere
- cobs -- Pin T. Ng and Martin Maechler (2015). COBS -- Constrained B-splines (Sparse matrix based). R package version 1.3-1. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=cobs
- igraph -- Csardi G, Nepusz T: The igraph software package for complex network research, InterJournal, Complex Systems 1695. 2006. http://igraph.org
The trafficking heat maps reflect the number of trafficking instances associated with each country, as recorded in the C4ADS Air Seizure Database. Each trafficking instance is counted once for each country along its known transit route, regardless of the location of the seizure. For example, if a wildlife trafficker planned to move ivory from Nigeria to China via France, Nigeria will be counted as the origin, France as transit, and China as the destination, regardless of where the ivory was seized. Counting trafficking instances in this way, rather than by seizure count, can reveal countries with a trafficking problem but with limited enforcement or reporting capabilities.
The Country Enforcement Index is a quantitative representation of each country’s ability to detect and seize illicit wildlife products traversing through its airports. Higher numbers indicate more effective enforcement and lower numbers indicate that the country is unable to detect a large number of illicit products going through its airports. The percentages represented in this chart were derived through the following equation:
We define ‘successfully attempted trafficking instances’ as the number of times illicit wildlife products were trafficked through a country, regardless of whether they were seized. Only countries linked to five or more trafficking instances were included. Seizures made prior to arrival in a given country were removed from that country’s assessment, as that country was never in a position to stop that individual or shipment.
As with all analyses based on seizure data, a number of biases may be affecting the Index’s findings. For instance, enforcement in countries with better reporting regimes or greater media interest in wildlife seizures are more likely to have a higher Country Enforcement Indicator. By the same reasoning, well-performing enforcement in countries with less reporting or media interest may rank lower in the Index. The impact of reporting differences on the Index’s results can, however, be reduced by compiling detailed route information for each seizure.
Note that common transit countries are generally unable to screen or stop passengers and shipments between flights, and therefore may be misrepresented in the Index. Enforcement in air transit jurisdictions like the UAE may appear to be performing poorly compared to enforcement in origin (e.g. Malawi) and destination locations (e.g. China). This particular bias is mitigated to some extent by simultaneously analyzing wildlife products with vastly different supply chains (i.e. bird trafficking origin countries are very different from ivory origin countries). In contrast, primarily destination countries are more likely to have a higher Enforcement Indicator, since trafficking instances that are not stopped at their destination cannot be seized at another airport along their route.
The trafficking routes maps display the transit routes recorded in the C4ADS Air Seizure Database. Only trafficking instances with associated route information were included in the routes maps – 28.6% of the instances within the Database did not include the requisite information for inclusion.
Lines in the Totals Routes Map below represent one specific route. The opacity of each line reflects the number of times that route was taken. Each circle represents specific cities, and the size of each circle is determined by the number of times each location appeared in the routes data. City-specific information was used wherever possible, but capital cities were used for seizure instances that only included country-level information (e.g. a seizure made in the UK after arrival from Turkey would be depicted as one line connecting Ankara and London; a trafficking instance originating in Kenya, transiting through the UAE, and arriving in Indonesia would be displayed here as two lines – Nairobi to Abu Dhabi and Abu Dhabi to Jakarta).
Lines in the ivory, rhino horn, reptiles, and birds routes maps represent one flight each. Lines are lighter in color at the origin of trafficking instances, and become darker as the flight approaches its destination.
Source: Human Trafficking Hotline
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XIII. Mathiesen, Karl. “Tanzania Elephant Population Declined by 60% in Five Years, Census Reveals.” The Guardian, 02 June 2015. www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jun/02/tanzania-epicentre-of-elephant-poaching-census-reveals.
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XVII. “Rhinoplax Vigil.” IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. www.iucnredlist.org/details/22682464/0.
XVIII. “Astrochelys Yniphora.” IUNC Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. www.iucnredlist.org/details/9016/0.
XIX. Fishel, Justin and Mike Levine. “TSA Director Reassigned in Wake of Security Failures.” ABC News. ABC News, 2 June 2015. http://abcnews.go.com/US/tsa-director-reassigned-wake-security-failures/story?id=31458476.
XX. Neffenger, Peter V. “TSA Security Gaps.” Statement before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 3 Nov. 2015. www.tsa.gov/news/testimony/2015/11/03/testimony-hearing-tsa-security-gaps.
XXI. “ACI Airports Statistics Infographics.” Airport Council International. www.aci.aero/Data-Centre/Airport-Statistics-Infographics.
XXII. Vira, Varun, Thomas Ewing, and Jackson Miller. Out of Africa: The Global Trade in Illicit Elephant Ivory. Born Free USA and C4ADS, August 2014. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/566ef8b4d8af107232d5358a/t/56af83ee1f40390e88337743/1454343151910/Out+of+Africa.pdf.
XXIII. “Wildlife smugglers eye emerging airports.” The Times of India. 29 Sep. 2015. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/madurai/Wildlife-smugglers-eye-emerging-airports/articleshow/49150160.cms.
XXIV. “ACI Media Releases.” Airports Council International. 9 Sep. 2016. www.aci.aero/News/Releases/Most-Recent/2016/09/09/Airports-Council-International-releases-2015-World-Airport-Traffic-Report-The-busiest-become-busier-the-year-of-the-international-hub-airport.
XXV. Iyorah, Festus. “The 10 Largest Airports in Africa.” The African Exponent. The Exponent Network, 13 Sep. 2016. www.africanexponent.com/post/7898-africas-10-largest-airports.
XXVII. “象牙走私拼图：象牙贸易生了走私市场（The Paradox of Ivory Smuggling: The Legal Ivory Trade Promotes a Rapidly Expanding Black Market)." Weekly Times, 20 June 2014. http://collection.sina.com.cn/yjjj/20140620/0820155196.shtml.
XXX. “Rare Tortoises and Drugs Found in Abandoned Luggage.” WWF. World Wildlife Fund for Nature, 15 June 2010. http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?193844/Rare-tortoises-and-drugs-found-in-abandoned-luggage.
XXXI. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) monitors the transnational wildlife trade, and lists endangered species on one of three appendices at the behest of its party countries. Appendix I bans all international trade in a species, except in exceptional circumstances, while Appendix II lists all species whose trade must be controlled to preserve the health of the species. Appendix III “contains species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade.” (“How CITES Works.” Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. https://cites.org/eng/disc/how.php.)
XXXII. “Birds and Their Droppings Can Carry Over 60 Diseases.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International Ltd., 22 Sep. 2014. www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/61646.php.
XXXIII. Jacob, Jacqueline P. et. al. Avian Diseases Transmissible to Humans. University of Florida – Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension. http://vetextension.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2015/03/Avian-Diseases-Transmissible-to-Humans1.pdf.
XXXIV. Nordqvist, Christian. “What is Avian Flu? What is Bird Flu?” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International Ltd., 23 Feb. 2015. www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/5556.php.
XXXV. “FAQs: H5N1 Influenza.” World Health Organization. WHO. www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/avian_influenza/h5n1_research/faqs/en/.
XXXVI. Import Procedures for a Pet Bird Entering (Non-U.S. Origin) the United States.” USDA APHIS. USDA, 18 Oct. 2016. www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-and-animal-product-import-information/import-live-animals/sa_avian/ct_nonus_pet_bird.
XXXVII. Neil D’Cruze and David W. Macdonald note, “…we raise pre-existing concerns that CITES records are incomplete, with no data on live seizures provided by 70% of countries party to CITES.” (D’Cruze, N, Macdonald DW. “A Review of Global Trends in CITES Live Wildlife Confiscations.” Nature Conservation 15: 47-63, 22 Sep. 2016. doi: 10.3897/natureconservation.15.10005.)
XXXVIII. D’Cruze, N, Macdonald DW. “A Review of Global Trends in CITES Live Wildlife Confiscations.” Nature Conservation 15: 47-63, 22 Sep. 2016. doi: 10.3897/natureconservation.15.10005.
XXXIX. “A guide to using the CITES Trade Database.” Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. https://trade.cites.org/cites_trade_guidelines/en-CITES_Trade_Database_Guide.pdf.
XL. “The Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS).” Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. www.cites.org/eng/prog/etis/index.php.
XLI. “EU TWIX.” EU-TWIX. 2016. http://eu-twix.org/.
XLII. The “open source” here refers to all publicly available sources of information, e.g. local news reports, CITES reports, customs press releases, etc.
XLIII. Other species, such as pangolins and abalone, which were not initially included in our analysis due to time constraints, will be incorporated into the seizure databases in future years.
XLIV. UNODC. World Wildlife Crime Report: Trafficking in Protected Species. UNODC, May 2016. www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/wildlife/World_Wildlife_Crime_Report_2016_final.pdf.
XLV. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2016. www.R-project.org/.
XLVI. Milliken, Tom. Illegal Trade in Ivory and Rhino Horn: An Assessment to Improve Law Enforcement Under the Wildlife TRAPS Project. USAID and TRAFFIC International, 2014. www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/W-TRAPS-Elephant-Rhino-report.pdf.
XLVII. “国务院办公厅关于有序停止商业性加工销售象牙及制品活动的通知.” The State Council of China. 30 Dec. 2016. www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2016-12/30/content_5155017.htm.
XLVIII. “Wild and Precious Exhibit Travels from Bangkok and Shanghai to Beijing and Nairobi.” Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. https://cites.org/eng/Wild_and_Precious_Exhibit_travels_from_Bangkok_and_Shanghai_to_Beijing_and_Nairobi; “Kenya Airways Backs Anti-Poaching Campaign.” WildlifeDirect. 30 July 2013. http://newsroom.wildlifedirect.org/2013/07/30/kenya-airways-backs-anti-poaching-campaign/.
XLIX. A May 2015 report undertaken on behalf of the Department of National Parks and Wildlife of Malawi included Malawi’s wildlife seizure data from 1989 to 2014. The report’s authors gathered the data from a variety of different Malawian government agencies that had compiled their own internal seizure databases in hard copy. According to the report, “…reviewers found there to be a lack of reliable available data, making it is [sic] almost impossible to identify detailed crime patterns or trends. Several agencies seemed to have not historically recorded or retained wildlife crime data, and those that did often stored it in hard copy only, making it very difficult to access and analyse. In total, 50 wildlife crime cases were analysed by reviewers, the majority of which were ivory offences at airports.” (Waterland, Shelley, et. al. Illegal Wildlife Trade Review Malawi. German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH: German International Cooperation, Lilongwe Wildlife Trust, Born Free Foundation, and the Department of National Parks and Wildlife of Malawi, May 2015. www.lilongwewildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/IWT-Review-Malawi.pdf.)
L. According to ivory seizure data collected in C4ADS’ Ivory Seizure Database, which contains information on ivory seizures beginning in 2009.
LI. Milliken, Tom. Illegal Trade in Ivory and Rhino Horn: An Assessment to Improve Law Enforcement Under the Wildlife TRAPS Project. USAID and TRAFFIC International, 2014. www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/W-TRAPS-Elephant-Rhino-report.pdf.
LII. Figure 7 depicts a timeline of all ivory seizures in the Database, as well as timelines for large-scale (greater than 500 kilograms) and medium-scale (greater than 100 kilograms) shipments. Seizures are split by weight class as different size shipments tend to share certain characteristics. Large-scale ivory shipments, for instance, indicate organized criminal involvement and generally move by air freight. Medium-scale shipments are indicative of organized crime as well, but can move in air freight shipments or in multiple checked suitcases. Medium-scale air freight shipments often follow each other in quick succession. Small-scale ivory trafficking (anything below 100 kilograms) can include anything from an uneducated tourist with an ivory bangle, to small-scale networks moving worked ivory to workshops or markets elsewhere.
LIII. China is the world’s largest legal and illegal ivory market according to the Elephant Action League, Wildaid, and other conservation organizations. A report by Fiona Underwood, Robert Burn, and Tom Milliken titled Dissecting the Illegal Ivory Trade: An Analysis of Ivory Seizures Data attribute the rapid growth in illegal ivory trade activity since 2007 to the increased consumption in China. (Crosta, Andrea, et. al. Blending Ivory: China’s Old Loopholes, New Hopes. Elephant Action League, Dec. 2015. www.elephantleague.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Report-China-Blending-Ivory-Dec2015.pdf; Ivory Demand in China 2012-2014. WildAid, Save the Elephants, and the African Wildlife Foundation, 2014. http://wildaid.org/sites/default/files/resources/Print_Ivory%20Report_Final_v3.pdf ; Underwood FM, Burn RW, Milliken T. Dissecting the Illegal Ivory Trade: An Analysis of Ivory Seizures Data. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76539, 2013. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076539.)
LIV. Weru, Sam. Wildlife Protection and Trafficking Assessment in Kenya: Drivers and Trends of Transnational Wildlife Crime in Kenya and Its Role as a Transit Point for Trafficked Species in East Africa. TRAFFIC, 2016. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/Traf-126.pdf.
LV. Iyorah, Festus. “The 10 Largest Airports in Africa.” The African Exponent. The Exponent Network, 13 Sep. 2016. www.africanexponent.com/post/7898-africas-10-largest-airports.
LVI. Zhao Wen.“Man gets 7 years for smuggling ivory items.” Shanghai Daily. 19 June 2013. http://en.people.cn/90882/8289766.html; Wang Lin.“行李箱装象牙和犀角制品(图).” Sohu. 18 June 2013. http://roll.sohu.com/20130618/n379177909.shtml; “Shanghai Arrests for illegal rhino horn and ivory purchases.” Xinhua News. 20 March 2013. https://africanwildlifetrust.blogspot.com/2013/03/shanghai-arrests-for-illegal-rhino-horn.html; “Plus de 350 kilos d’ivoire saisis par la douane en Ile-de-France.” French Customs. 8 June 2016. www.douane.gouv.fr/articles/a12860-plus-de-350-kg-d-ivoire-saisis-par-la-douane-en-ile-de-france; “VIDEO. Une saisie record de 350 kilos de defenses d’éléphants, en France.” Normandie Actu. 9 June 2016. www.normandie-actu.fr/video-une-saisie-record-de-350-kilos-de-defenses-d-elephants-en-france_211171/.
LVII. Milliken, Tom. Illegal Trade in Ivory and Rhino Horn: An Assessment to Improve Law Enforcement Under the Wildlife TRAPS Project. USAID and TRAFFIC International, 2014. www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/W-TRAPS-Elephant-Rhino-report.pdf.
LVIII. In the 2014 report, Illegal Trade in Ivory and Rhino Horn: An Assessment to Improve Law Enforcement Under the Wildlife TRAPS Project, Milliken determines the average weight of trafficked rhino horns to be 2.78 kilograms. This estimate assumes that 90% of trafficked horns are from white rhinos, and combines the average weight of white rhino horns (2.94 kg) and black rhino horns (2.65 kg).
LIX. Milliken, Tom. Illegal Trade in Ivory and Rhino Horn: An Assessment to Improve Law Enforcement Under the Wildlife TRAPS Project. USAID and TRAFFIC International, 2014. www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/W-TRAPS-Elephant-Rhino-report.pdf.
LX. Like with ivory, larger shipments of rhino horn are generally indicative of more sophisticated criminal involvement. To monitor changes in different weight classes over time, we assigned the top 10% of rhino horn seizures by weight to the large-scale weight class, and the top 10-50% to the medium-scale class. All other seizures were considered small-scale.
LXI. Milliken, Tom. Illegal Trade in Ivory and Rhino Horn: An Assessment to Improve Law Enforcement Under the Wildlife TRAPS Project. USAID and TRAFFIC International, 2014. www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/W-TRAPS-Elephant-Rhino-report.pdf; Dixon, Robyn. “Vietnam, the Biggest Hub for Illegal Rhino Horn Trafficking, Has Done Little to Stop It.” Los Angeles Times. 26 Sep. 2016. www.latimes.com/world/africa/la-fg-vietnam-rhino-trafficking-20160926-snap-story.html.
LXII. As illegal shipments grow larger, a higher degree of coordination, is necessary to increase the chances that shipments will arrive at their destinations unimpeded. In keeping with this principle, reptile shipments have been divided into large- and medium-scale categories in order to identify shifting patterns in likely organized criminal activity. The top 10% of reptile seizures by weight are considered large-scale, while the top 10-50% by weight are medium-scale.
LXIII. Oppili, P. “Over 8,000 Captive Baby Tortoises Die.” The Hindu. 29 March 2013. www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/over-8000-captive-baby-tortoises-die/article4559180.ece.
LXIV. “Custom Officials Seize Over 10,000 Exotic Turtles at Kolkata Airport; Suspected Smugglers Detained.” International Business Times. 20 July 2013. www.ibtimes.co.in/custom-officials-seize-over-10000-exotic-turtles-at-kolkata-airport-suspected-smugglers-detained-492669.
LXV. D’Cruze, Neil, et. al. “A Star Attraction: The Illegal Trade in Indian Star Tortoises.” Nature Conservation, vol. 13, 9 Nov. 2015, pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3897/natureconservation.13.5625.
LXVI. Similarly to the previous categories, larger bird shipments are more likely to be associated with organized criminal activity. Tracking changes in those shipments can therefore give some indication of changes in the modus operandi of criminal networks. To that end, the top 10% of bird seizures by weight are classified as large-scale, and the top 20-50% by weight are considered medium-scale.
LXVII. “1000 Grey Parrots Rescued from Trappers in Cameroon.” Wildlife Extra. Feb. 2010. www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/parrot-rescue.html#cr.
LXVIII. “Bird Smuggling Bid Foiled.” The Daily Star. 3 July 2010. www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-145157.
LXIX. Hoang, Viet. “Police Seize Hundreds of Smuggled Birds at Tan Son Nhat Airport.” Thanh Nien News. 9 Sep. 2014. www.thanhniennews.com/society/police-seize-hundreds-of-smuggled-birds-at-tan-son-nhat-airport-30887.html.
LXX. Rueb, Emily S. “Tiny Birds, Big Drama: Inside the World of the Birdmen of Queens.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 31 July 2015. www.nytimes.com/2015/08/02/nyregion/tiny-birds-big-drama-inside-the-world-of-the-birdmen-of-queens.html
LXXI. “Two fined for bird smuggling.” Kaieteur News. 1 May 2016. www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2016/05/01/two-fined-for-bird-smuggling/; Rueb, Emily S. “Tiny Birds, Big Drama: Inside the World of the Birdmen of Queens.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 31 July 2015. www.nytimes.com/2015/08/02/nyregion/tiny-birds-big-drama-inside-the-world-of-the-birdmen-of-queens.html; Marzulli, John. “Time to Raid Your Nest, Bird Smuggler.” Daily News. NY Daily News, 14 April 2009. www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/bird-smuggler-guyana-pleads-guilty-2006-charges-finches-article-1.360560; Marzulli, John. “Clip JFK Flier with Finches Up His Sleeve.” Daily News. NY Daily News, 27 June 2012. www.nydailynews.com/new-york/clip-bird-brain-jfk-9-finches-sleeve-article-1.1102965; “US-based Guyanese found with birds in pants crotch at airport.” Stabroek News. 5 September 2012. http://www.stabroeknews.com/2012/news/stories/09/05/us-based-guyanese-found-with-birds-in-pants-crotch-at-airport/; “Finch Smuggler Sentenced for Trafficking for ‘Tweets’.” U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Northeast Blog. 6 May 2013. https://usfwsnortheast.wordpress.com/2013/05/06/finch-smuggler-sentenced-for-trafficking-for-tweets/; “Man caught trying to smuggle singing birds through airport.” News Source Guyana. 21 January 2014. http://newssourcegy.com/news/man-caught-trying-to-smuggle-singing-birds-through-airport/; “Smuggler Found with Birds in Hair Curlers During Airport Search.” Stabroek News. 23 Jan. 2014. www.stabroeknews.com/2014/news/stories/01/23/smuggler-found-birds-hair-curlers-airport-search/; “Would-Be Smuggler Nabbed at Airport with Birds in Curlers.” Stabroek News. 17 June 2014. www.stabroeknews.com/2014/news/stories/06/17/smuggler-nabbed-airport-birds-curlers/; “Brampton Man Attempts to Conceal 19 Songbirds During Visit to Toronto Pearson International Airport.” Ontario SPCA. 26 March 2015. http://ontariospca.ca/media-centre/media-releases/977-brampton-man-attempts-to-conceal-19-songbirds-during-visit-to-toronto-pearson-international-airport.html.
LXXII. Todorova, Vesela. “Dubai ‘Major Hub’ for Wildlife Trafficking: Report.” The National. Abu Dhabi Media, 4 Dec. 2013. www.thenational.ae/uae/environment/dubai-major-hub-for-wildlife-trafficking-report.
LXXIII. “Air Transport in Kenya.” Fortune of Africa. http://fortuneofafrica.com/kenya/air-transport-in-kenya/.
LXXIV. Nairobi’s prominence in the ivory category of the C4ADS’ Air Seizure Database is likely an effect of heightened awareness, stronger enforcement, and frequent reporting.
LXXV. “ACI Media Releases.” Airports Council International. 9 Sep. 2016. www.aci.aero/News/Releases/Most-Recent/2016/09/09/Airports-Council-International-releases-2015-World-Airport-Traffic-Report-The-busiest-become-busier-the-year-of-the-international-hub-airport.
LXXVI. “Country-by-Country Findings.” The Great Elephant Census. Vulcan and The Paul G. Allen Foundation, 31 Aug. 2016. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5304f39be4b0c1e749b456be/t/57c71f5fcd0f68b39c3f4bfa/1472667487326/GEC+Results+Country+by+Country+Findings+Fact+Sheet_FINAL_8+26+2016.pdf.
LXXVIII. “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Cut Pieces at Airport.” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 4 Sep. 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1409.html; “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Cut Pieces at Airport (with Photos).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 7 Sep. 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1413.html.
LXXIX. Emslie, R. “Ceratotherium simum.” The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T4185A16980466.en.
LXXX. Zhao Wen. “Man gets 7 years for smuggling ivory items.” Shanghai Daily. 19 June 2013. http://en.people.cn/90882/8289766.html; Wang Lin. “行李箱装象牙和犀角制品(图).” Sohu. 18 June 2013. http://roll.sohu.com/20130618/n379177909.shtml; “Shanghai Arrests for illegal rhino horn and ivory purchases.” Xinhua News. 20 March 2013. https://africanwildlifetrust.blogspot.com/2013/03/shanghai-arrests-for-illegal-rhino-horn.html.
LXXXI. “Man Remanded for Smuggling Star Tortoises.” The Hindu. 29 Sep. 2015. www.thehindu.com/news/cities/
LXXXII. Madurai/man-remanded-for-smuggling-star-tortoises/article7700080.ece; “Wildlife smugglers eye emerging airports.” The Times of India. 29 Sep. 2015. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/madurai/Wildlife-smugglers-eye-emerging-airports/articleshow/49150160.cms.
LXXXIII. “Airplane Handgun Smuggle Bid Is Foiled by Feds.” The Smoking Gun. 13 May 2013. www.thesmokinggun.com/documents/flier-wraps-gun-in-aluminum-foil-784521.
LXXXIV. Osada, Jasmine. “Terminally Ill Man Jailed 9 Weeks for Smuggling Birds.” The Straits Times. 17 Oct. 2015. www.straitstimes.com/singapore/courts-crime/terminally-ill-man-jailed-9-weeks-for-smuggling-birds.
LXXXIX. “Largest Seizure of Critically Endangered Ploughshare Tortoises Made in Thailand.” TRAFFIC. TRAFFIC International, 19 Mar. 2013. www.traffic.org/home/2013/3/19/largest-seizure-of-critically-endangered-ploughshare-tortois.html.
XC. Justice, Adam. “Zurich Airport Customs Seize Record 262kg of Ivory.” International Business Times. IB Times Co. Ltd., 4 Aug. 2015. www.ibtimes.co.uk/zurich-airport-customs-seize-record-262kg-ivory-1514056.
XCI. “Eight Suitcases Full of Ivory Seized at Zurich Airport.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 4 Aug. 2015. www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/aug/04/eight-suitcases-full-of-ivory-seized-at-zurich-airport.
XCII. “Chinese Ivory Smugglers Return Home.” Beijing International. www.ebeijing.gov.cn/BeijingInformation/BeijingNewsUpdate/t1398537.htm.
XCIII. The incident did not appear to be isolated; Tanzanian officials at the time of the seizure noted similarities between the case and a July 2013 drug smuggling case, when two Tanzanian socialites reportedly smuggled several large bags packed full of drugs through Julius Nyerere Airport in Dar es Salaam. (“Cunning Chinese Ivory Smugglers Unmasked.” The Citizen. 17 Aug. 2015. www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Cunning-Chinese-ivory-smugglers-unmasked/1840340-2835598-s1tvfb/index.html.)
XCIV. “Ibama Apreende Pássaros Que Embarcavam Ilegalmente No Aeroporto De Brasília.” ADERJ. Associação Defensores Da Represa De Jurumirim, 16 Nov. 2010. www.aderjurumirim.org/site/noticias/Ibama-apreende-passaros-que-embarcavam-ilegalmente-no-aeroporto-de-Brasilia/1220.html.
XCV. Cobra II Newsletter Issue 1; Wee, Darren. “Kenya Extradites Alleged Illegal Ivory Kingpin to China.” South China Morning Post. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd, 10 Feb. 2014. www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1425650/kenya-extradites-alleged-illegal-ivory-kingpin-china.
XCVI. “On the Trail: Information and Analysis Bulletin on Animal Poaching and Smuggling | N°11 / 1st October – 31st December 2015.” Robin Des Bois. ROBIN DES BOIS, 9 Mar. 2016. www.robindesbois.org/wpcontent/uploads/ON_THE_TRAIL_11.pdf.
XCVII. “Ibama Apreende Pássaros Que Embarcavam Ilegalmente No Aeroporto De Brasília.” ADERJ. Associação Defensores Da Represa De Jurumirim, 16 Nov. 2010. www.aderjurumirim.org/site/noticias/Ibama-apreende-passaros-que-embarcavam-ilegalmente-no-aeroporto-de-Brasilia/1220.html. ; “230 Canários-da-Terra São Apreendidos no Aeroporto de Brasilia.” ANDA. Agência de Notícias de Direitos Animais, 16 Nov. 2010. www.anda.jor.br/16/11/2010/230-canarios-da-terra-sao-apreendidos-no-aeroporto-de-brasilia.
XCVIII. “230 Turtles from India Seized at Bangkok Airport: Report.” NDTV. Indo-Asian News Service, 15 May 2014. www.ndtv.com/india-news/230-turtles-from-india-seized-at-bangkok-airport-report-562041.
XCIX. “510 Tortoises Rescued at Dhaka Airport.” Prothom Alo. 15 Dec. 2014. http://en.prothom-alo.com/bangladesh/news/57107/510-tortoises-rescues-at-Dhaka-airport.
C. “Ibama Pode Sacrificar Pássaros que PF Apreendeu.” O Globo. 24 June 2011. https://blogmarcelolira.blogspot.com/2011/06/ibama-pode-sacrificar-passaros-absurdo.html.
CI. “Thailand Rhino Horns.” AP Archive. The Associated Press, 20 June 2014. www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/4081ad2f16c3885f5ec7edb366f7deef; “On the Trail: Information and Analysis Bulletin on Animal Poaching and Smuggling | N°4 / 1st January – 31st March 2014.” Robin Des Bois. ROBIN DES BOIS, 9 Mar. 2016. www.robindesbois.org/wpcontent/uploads/ON_THE_TRAIL_4.pdf.
CII. Al-Othman, Hannah. “Huge Haul of Illegal Ivory Found in Suitcase at Heathrow Airport.” Evening Standard. 23 Nov. 2015. www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/huge-haul-of-illegal-ivory-found-in-suitcase-at-heathrow-airport-a3121141.html
CIII. Gowhar, Imran. “Terrapin Smuggling Racket Busted, Two Held.” The Hindu. 30 June 2015. www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/terrapin-smuggling-racket-busted-two-held/article7368630.ece.
CVI. “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Tusks and Ivory Products at Airport (with Photo).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 28 July 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1382.html.
CVII. “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Products at Airport (with Photos).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 17 April 2016. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1586.html.
CVIII. Momanyi, Bernard. “Airport Staff Suspects in Sh130m Ivory Probe.” Capital News. Capital Digitel Media, 6 May 2011. www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2011/05/airport-staff-suspects-in-shm-ivory-probe/; AFP. “Kenya Seizes 600 kg of Nigeria-Bound Ivory.” Modern Ghana. MG Media Group, 22 June 2012. www.modernghana.com/news/402835/1/kenya-seizes-600-kg-of-nigeria-bound-ivory.html.
CIX. “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Products at Airport (with Photos).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 7 Aug. 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1388.html; “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Cut Pieces and Products at Airport (with Photos).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 24 Aug. 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1401.html; “Hong Kong Customs seizes suspected ivory tusks and ivory products at airport (with photo).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 28 July 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1382.html; “Hong Kong Customs Seizes Suspected Ivory Products at Airport (with Photos).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 3 Nov. 2015. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1455.html; “Hong Kong Customs seizes suspected ivory products at airport (with photos).” Customs and Excise Department: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. 17 April 2016. www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index_id_1586.html.
CX. “Customs Seized Smuggled Ivory Worth 22.80 Million Baht.” Suvarnabhumi Airport Cargo Clearance Customs Bureau. www.customs-ccs.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=338&Itemid=28&lang=th; “Thailand seizes half-tonne of ivory from Kenya.” Agence France-Presse. 17 July 2012. www.thephuketnews.com/thailand-seizes-half-tonne-of-ivory-from-kenya-32080.php; Momanyi, Bernard. “Airport staff suspects in Sh130m ivory probe.” Capital News. 6 May 2011. www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2011/05/airport-staff-suspects-in-shm-ivory-probe/; Momanyi, Bernard. “700kgs of ivory netted in Kenya.” Capital News. 22 June 2012. http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2012/06/700kgs-of-ivory-netted-in-kenya/.
CXI. “男子走私市值140万美元黑犀牛角被查遭严惩(图)” China News Network. 17 Jan. 2014. www.chinanews.com/gj/2014/01-17/5750568.shtml.
CXII. “Thailand Rhino Horns.” AP Archive. The Associated Press, 20 June 2014. www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/4081ad2f16c3885f5ec7edb366f7deef.
CXIII. Macleod, Fiona. “Poachers, Prostitutes, and Profit.” Mail & Guardian. Mail & Guardian Online, 22 July 2011. http://mg.co.za/article/2011-07-22-poachers-prostitutes-and-profit.
CXIV. “Customs Officials Confiscate Rhino Horns at ORTIA.” SARS. 23 Dec. 2015. www.sars.gov.za/Media/MediaReleases/Pages/23-December-2015---Customs-officials-confiscate-rhino-horns-at-ORTIA.aspx; Ndlazi, Sakhile. “Tusks of R17m Seized.” Pretoria News. 3 March 2016. www.pressreader.com/south-africa/pretoria-news/20160303/281479275501302; Moseley, Brandon. “Rhino Poachers Indicted in Montgomery.” Alabama Political Reporter. www.alreporter.com/rhino-poachers-indicted-in-montgomery/.
CXV. Kous, Dima Abo. “Smuggled Cobras Rescued at Cairo Airport Thanks to Our Trainings.” International Fund for Animal Welfare. 9 May 2016. www.ifaw.org/united-states/news/smuggled-cobras-rescued-cairo-airport-thanks-our-trainings.
CXVI. “Workshop on Illegal Wildlife Trade Held in Islamabad.” Islamabad Scene. 10 Feb. 2016. http://islamabadscene.com/workshop-on-iillegal-wildlife-trade-held-in-islamabad/.
CXVII. “When ‘Mangoes’ Stirred to Life.” The Hindu. 29 April 2014. www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Thiruvananthapuram/when-mangoes-stirred-to-life/article5959091.ece.
CXXII. “Trafic de Tortues de Madagascar.” Madagascar Tribune. 16 June 2010. http://mg.chm-cbd.net/news/trafic-de-tortues-de-madagascar.
CXXIII. Davis, Kathleen. “Ketamine: Facts, Effects and Hazards.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International Ltd., 18 Nov. 2015. www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/302663.php.
CXXIV. “Most Frequently Used Drugs.” www.vetandwild.com/drugs.html.
CXXV. “On the Trail: Information and Analysis Bulletin on Animal Poaching and Smuggling | N°10 / 1st July – 30th September 2015.” Robin Des Bois. ROBIN DES BOIS. www.robindesbois.org/wp-content/uploads/ON_THE_TRAIL_10.pdf.
CXXVI. “Malaysia Jails Man Who Smuggled 95 Snakes on a Plane.” BBC News. 9 Sep. 2010. www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-11203270; “Smuggler caught after bag holding 95 boa constrictors bursts open at airport.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. 3 Sep. 2010. www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/sep/03/smuggler-boa-constrictors; Christy, Bryan. “Asia’s Wildlife Trade.” National Geographic. National Geographic Partners, LLC, Jan. 2010. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/01/asian-wildlife/christy-text; “Anson Wong.” Notable Ansons. 28 Aug. 2010. https://notableansons.blogspot.com/2010/08/anson-wong.html; Lim, Balqis. “On the trail of wildlife smugglers.” News Straits Times. 24 Nov. 2013. https://wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com/2013/11/on-trail-of-wildlife-smugglers.html; Chao, Steve. “Return of the Lizard King.” Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera Media Network, 21 April 2015. www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2013/11/return-lizard-king-2013111683648328719.html.
CXXVII. Neslen, Arthur. “Lizard traffickers exploit legal loopholes to trade at world’s biggest fair.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. 11 Nov. 2015. www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/nov/11/lizard-traffickers-exploit-legal-loopholes-to-trade-at-worlds-biggest-fair; “Costa Rica police seize 170 wild animals from German tourist’s luggage.” The Tico Times. 9 Sep. 2014. www.ticotimes.net/2014/09/09/costa-rica-police-seize-170-wild-animals-from-german-tourists-luggage; Fendt, Lindsay. “German tourist busted at Costa Rica airport smuggling 400 animals is released with no fine.” The Tico Times. 20 Sep. 2014. www.ticotimes.net/2014/09/20/german-tourist-busted-at-costa-rica-airport-smuggling-400-animals-is-released-with-no-fine; Hamilton, Megan. “Costa Rica Deports German Caught Smuggling Hundreds of Animals.” Digital Journal. 20 Sep. 2014. www.digitaljournal.com/news/environment/costa-rica-deports-german-caught-smuggling-hundreds-of-animals/article/404339; Oskroba, Maciej. Various Facebook posts; RARE-HERPS. Various Facebook posts.
CXXVIII. Robinson, Julian. “Budgie Smuggling: Passenger Arrested at Cuba Airport with 66 Tiny Birds Sewn into His Trousers after Customs Officer Spots ‘Bulge’.” DailyMail.com. Associated Newspapers Ltd., 3 June 2014. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2647135/Budgie-smuggling-Man-arrested-trying-enter-Cuba-66-tiny-birds-sewn-trousers-customs-officer-spots-bulge.html.
CXXX. Stagno-Navarra, Karl. “Smuggled Birds Get Radiation Dose by Airport Security.” Malta Today. Media Today Co. Ltd., 28 Feb. 2012. www.maltatoday.com.mt/news/national/16413/smuggled-birds-get-radiation-dose-by-airport-security-20120228.
CXXXI. “Man Caught Carrying 200 Canaries at Airport.” Times of Malta.com. 21 Nov. 2009. www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20091121/local/man-caught-carrying-200-canaries-at-airport.282637.
CXXXV. Hsu, Christine. “Taiwan Finds 3rd Case of Deadly H5N1 Virus in Birds Smuggled from China.” Medical Daily. IBT Media Inc., 17 July 2012. www.medicaldaily.com/taiwan-finds-3rd-case-deadly-h5n1-virus-birds-smuggled-china-241383; “On the Trail: Information and Analysis Bulletin on Animal Poaching and Smuggling | N°1 / 1st April – 30th June 2013.” Robin Des Bois. ROBIN DES BOIS. www.robindesbois.org/wp-content/uploads/ON-THE-TRAIL-1.pdf; “Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian Influenza A (H5N1) in People.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 11 June 2015. www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/h5n1-people.htm.
CXXXVI. Malkin, Bonnie. “Man caught smuggling pigeons in his trousers.” The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. 3 Feb. 2009. http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01252/pigport_1252075f.jpg; Dell’Amore, Christine. “PHOTO: Smuggler Caught With 14 Birds in Pants.” National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. 6 May 2009. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/05/090506-bird-smuggling-picture.html; TRAFFIC Bulletin Seizures and Prosecutions: March 1997 – October 2014. TRAFFIC. 2014; “Man jailed for trying to smuggle peregrine falcon eggs out of Birmingham Airport.” Birmingham Post. Birmingham Post. 30 May 2013. www.birminghampost.co.uk/news/local-news/man-jailed-trying-smuggle-peregrine-3928774; “Rare birds found taped to passenger’s body at LAX.” LA Now. Los Angeles Times. 29 Aug. 2011. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2011/08/bird-smuggling.html; Longbottom, Wil. “The Man Packing a Dozen Peckers in His Pants: Traveller Arrested Smuggling Live Hummingbirds in His Trousers.” DailyMail.com. Associated Newspapers Ltd., 27 Sep. 2011. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2042474/Traveller-arrested-trying-smuggle-live-HUMMINGBIRDS-special-pouches-sewn-pants.html.
CXXXVII. The examples mentioned in the Recommendations are not meant to be an exhaustive list of all organizations working on these issues.
CXXXVIII. “The Buckingham Palace Declaration.” 15 March 2016. www.unitedforwildlife.org/#!/2016/03/the-buckingham-palace-declaration?_escaped_fragment_=.
CXL. CITES SC66 National Ivory Action Plan Progress Report. Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species, SC66, doc. 29, annex 9, Sep. 2015. https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/com/sc/66/E-SC66-29-Annex9.pdf
CXLI. “WildScan.” Freeland. Freeland Foundation. www.freeland.org/programs/wildscan/.
CXLIII. “Legislation.” Tikki Hywood Trust. www.tikkihywoodtrust.org/legislation/.
CXLIV. See www.cbp.gov/travel/travel-industry-personnel/carrier-liaison-prog for information regarding CBP’s Carrier Liaison Program.
CXLV. See “A Review of Global Trends in CITES Live Wildlife Confiscations” for an assessment of current CITES protocols for live wildlife seizures and associated recommendations. (D’Cruze, N, Macdonald DW. “A Review of Global Trends in CITES Live Wildlife Confiscations.” Nature Conservation 15: 47-63, 22 Sep. 2016. doi: 10.3897/natureconservation.15.10005.)
CXLVI. Actman, Jani. “What Happens to Smuggled Animals After They’re Seized?” National Geographic. National Geographic Partners, LLC, 30 Sep. 2016. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/wildlife-watch-animals-seized-smugglers/.
CXLVII. In one instance in 2015, Vietnamese officials seized “42 live, critically endangered” pangolins and delivered them to forest rangers, presumably for rehabilitation. The forest rangers instead sold all 42 animals to local restaurants, claiming that “the animals were too weak to be rescued anyway.” (Bryce, Emma. “Critically Endangered Pangolins Rescued, Then Sold as Food.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 20 Feb. 2015. www.theguardian.com/environment/world-on-a-plate/2015/feb/20/critically-endangered-pangolins-rescued-then-sold-as-food.)
CXLVIII. Before Spain designated a rescue center to receive rescued wildlife, “some of its seized animals went to a zoo now under investigation for ties to the illegal wildlife trade.” A nonprofit organization, Animal Advocacy and Protection, is now Spain’s designated rescue center. According to Raquel Garcia, head of public policy for the organization, “We bring [the animals] in, rehabilitate them if they’re social animals, and make sure they’re placed in a legitimate location.” (Actman, Jani. “What Happens to Smuggled Animals After They’re Seized?” National Geographic. National Geographic Partners, LLC, 30 Sep. 2016. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/wildlife-watch-animals-seized-smugglers/.)
CXLIX. “Inside the Vault Holding 80 Tonnes of Illegal Ivory.” ITV. ITV PLC, 15 March 2016. www.itv.com/news/2016-03-14/inside-the-warehouse-holding-80-tonnes-of-illegal-ivory/.
CL. “Gaps in Data Place Thousands of Illegally Traded Wild Animals at Risk, Say Researchers.” University of Oxford. 22 Sep. 2016. www.ox.ac.uk/news/2016-09-22-gaps-data-place-thousands-illegally-traded-wild-animals-risk-say-researchers-1.
CLI. “South Africa seizes two Vietnamese with record 41kg of rhino horns.” Toi Tre News. 2 Nov. 2014. http://tuoitrenews.vn/society/23744/south-africa-seizes-two-vietnamese-with-record-41kg-of-rhino-horns.
CLII. Fishel, Justin, et. al. “EXCLUSIVE: Undercover DHS Tests Find Security Failures at US Airports.” ABC News. 1 June 2015. http://abcnews.go.com/US/exclusive-undercover-dhs-tests-find-widespread-security-failures/ story?id=31434881.
CLIII. See http://www.customs.gov.hk/en/publication_press/press/index.html for Hong Kong press releases.
CLIV. See http://www.sars.gov.za/Media/MediaReleases/Pages/default.aspx for South African press releases.
CLV. See http://www.customs.gov.hk/filemanager/common/pdf/statistics/enforcement_cases_en.pdf for an example.
CLVI. A May 2015 report undertaken on behalf of the Department of National Parks and Wildlife of Malawi included Malawi’s wildlife seizure data from 1989 to 2014. The report’s authors gathered the data from a variety of different Malawian government agencies that had compiled their own internal seizure databases in hard copy. According to the report, “…reviewers found there to be a lack of reliable available data, making it is [sic] almost impossible to identify detailed crime patterns or trends. Several agencies seemed to have not historically recorded or retained wildlife crime data, and those that did often stored it in hard copy only, making it very difficult to access and analyse. In total, 50 wildlife crime cases were analysed by reviewers, the majority of which were ivory offences at airports.” (Waterland, Shelley, et. al. Illegal Wildlife Trade Review Malawi. German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH: German International Cooperation, Lilongwe Wildlife Trust, Born Free Foundation, and the Department of National Parks and Wildlife of Malawi, May 2015. www.lilongwewildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/IWT-Review-Malawi.pdf.)
CLVII. Neffenger, Peter V. “TSA Security Gaps.” Statement before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 3 Nov. 2015. www.tsa.gov/news/testimony/2015/11/03/testimony-hearing-tsa-security-gaps.
CLVIII. “Dubai Customs: World Class Standards.” Terminal Operator. www.terminaloperator.com/customs-security-surveillance/dubai-customs-world-class-standards.
CLIX. Smary Security. International Air Transport Association and Airports Council International. www.iata.org/whatwedo/security/Documents/SMART%20SECURITY%202016_WEB.pdf.
CLX. Vanishing Point: Criminality, Corruption and the Devastation of Tanzania’s Elephants. Environmental Investigation Agency. Nov. 2014. https://eia-international.org/wp-content/uploads/EIA-Vanishing-Point-lo-res1.pdf; Lee, Vicky. “Tanzania’s ivory problem more than Chinese diplomatic bags.” Environmental Investigation Agency. 10 Nov. 2014. https://eia-international.org/tanzanias-ivory-problem-more-than-chinese-diplomatic-bags.
CLXI. Chang-Ryung Han. A Survey of Customs Administration Perceptions on Illegal Wildlife Trade. World Customs Organization. July 2014. www.wcoomd.org/~/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/research/research-paper-series/34_wildlife_han_en.pdf?la=en.
CLXII. Elbein, Saul. “Dying for the Planet: Attacks on Environmental Journalists in the Age of Climate Change.” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. http://pulitzercenter.org/project/asia-indonesia-environment.
CLXIII. “Human Trafficking Assessment Tool for Airlines & Airports.” Human Trafficking Hotline. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/sites/default/files/Assessment%20Tool%20-%20Airlines%20%26%20Airports.pdf.
CLXIV. For more information on CEN, see www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/cen-suite/cen.aspx.